No. 2/3 (2017)
Tourism in the Borghi of Italy and Tuscany
2017 was the year of Historical Villages, just as 2016 was the year of Walks and 2018 will be the year of Italian Food and 2019 will be the year of Slow Tourism. According to a directive from Italy’s Cultural Heritage minister, “historic villages” are defined as Italian municipalities with a maximum of 5000 inhabitants characterized by a special cultural heritage. “Historic villages” (borghi) are very significant in a context that is seeing a large development in “slow tourism” and represents a decisive leverage of economic growth and new employment.
An Illustrated volume of Italian Historic Villages is also expected to be published. Those with fewer than 5,000 inhabitants constitute 70% of Italian municipalities, with a population of around 10 million residents accounting for about 16% of the national population and 5 million for more than half, about 54.0%, of the population. There are about 51,000 accommodation structures, for a total of 1.4 million beds equal to 30.5% and 27.9% of the total, which represents a decisive stimulus to economic growth and the creation of new jobs.
The demand in historic villages that began in 2016 equates to about 21.3 million arrivals (18.6% of the total recorded in Italy), and almost 90 million presences (22.3% of total presences). An initiative, Villages – Italian Travel, created to promote approximately 1,000 historic villages, from the hinterland to the coast, as places of “slow tourism,” authenticity and high quality of life, is based on four itineraries: Italian Villages, Historic Maritime Villages, Terre Malatestiane and Montefeltro (places historically associated with the Malatesta and Montefeltro families) and Paesaggi d’Autore (Artistic Landscapes). This is followed by a focus on Tuscany, a region with 124 villages.
Pistoia Italian cultural capital
The choice came about as a result of the competition of the municipalities in the selection process that led to the choice of Matera as the European Culture Capital for 2019. The competition had led to the creation of projects that still have their own autonomy and feasibility. For this reason, the MIBACT (Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Tourism) also conceptualized and implemented the Italian Culture Capital project as an annual event. In 2015, thanks to a single competition announcement for 2016 and for 2017, 10 cities were admitted to the selection process (Aquileia, Como, Ercolano, Mantua, Parma, Pisa, Pistoia, Spoleto, Taranto and Terni) out of a total of 24 candidates. Mantua was selected as the Italian Culture Capital for 2016 and later Pistoia for 2017. Subsequently, the city of Palermo was selected for 2018. The choice of Pistoia was communicated directly, on January 24, 2016, by Minister D. Franceschini at the MIBACT headquarters in front of the representatives of the selected cities. Representing Pistoia was the city’s Councillor for Culture, who is also the author of this article. Pistoia participated in the competition, with a proposal signed by all the public institutions of the territory, the Cassa di Risparmio of Pistoia and Pescia foundation and bank, and the Diocese.
Among other things, in its curriculum, Pistoia boasts a public education allocation of 5.2% of the current budget, about twice the resources spent in the national average. In Pistoia, more than a thousand events took place in 2017, but since the announcement of it as capital of culture, there has been a positive change in the attitude toward the city and the number of visitors has increased exceptionally. The effects of this promotion have been enormous. For example, in October 2016, the globally-renowned magazine Lonely Planet listed it as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2017, together with Bordeaux (France), Cape Town (South Africa), Los Angeles (USA); Mérida (Mexico), Ohorid (Macedonia), Seoul (South Korea), Lisbon (Portugal), Moscow (Russia) and Portland (Oregon, Usa). Using a kind of benchmark, the article also compares the rise of the tourism the cities of Mantua and Pistoia experience as a result of being named Italian Culture Capitals.
Major events and sustainable mobility: a difficult relationship. The Umbria Jazz case
Cecilia Chirieleison, Eleonora Migni
Transportation is one of the main topics in the wide-ranged theme of event sustainability, being capable to generate negative economic, social and environmental externalities. The present study is based on a questionnaire submitted to a sample of visitors participating to the Umbria Jazz festival, which is held in Perugia, Italy. The aim is analysing the transportation choices of those attending to an Italian hallmark event. Their preferences, motivations, and satisfaction have been considered with the purpose of evaluating the degree of sustainability of the mobility during the event. Finally, some policy implications have been drawn.
Projects of excellence for the development and promotion of the national tourism system: the religious itineraries of the Sicilian region
Silvana Cassar, Salvo Creaco
The article aims to analyze the “Religion & Culture” project carried out by the Sicilian Region for the development and promotion of religious tourism in the island territory. In this direction, the article examines the key aspects of state policy called “Projects of Excellence”, based on the allocation of a predetermined amount of financial resources to Regions and autonomous Provinces in order to increase the international competitiveness of the national tourism system. Subsequently, the article points out the decision-making process through which the Sicilian Region has regulated the use of its own budget. The concluding notes provide some suggestions to improve the allocation efficiency of future Projects.
Nautical Tourism and Italian Competitiveness in the Superyacht Market
Carlo Marcetti, Francesca Palmas
Nautical tourism is a little explored and little known phenomenon due to the lack of studies available, no universal definition and the fact that it is not part of the analysis of official tourism statistics. However, for several years, Italy has been the world’s leading country in terms of superyacht orders. In 2016, Italy accounted for 42.5% of global superyacht orders: 326 orders out of a world total of 760. The analysis carried out revealed that 2009 was the top year in terms of worldwide construction orders, resulting in the completion of 1,019 new ships; 523 of these, equivalent to over half (51.3%), were made in Italy. The widespread economic crisis subsequently led to a decrease in the number of orders, a situation which lasted until 2013 worldwide and 2014 for Italian shipyards. Since then, the industry has seen a new growth, returning as a driving force for sea-based economy. This article, which has the aim of bridging the lack of knowledge about nautical tourism, reveals the geographic areas where the largest pleasure boats (superyachts) are located during specific times of the year. Automatic Identification System (AIS) technology was used to detect their position in August 2016 and at the end of January 2017. The analysis also highlights a weakness for Italy, which fails to attract in the winter period, unlike other countries such as Greece or Spain. Overall, however, research confirms that Italy is very competitive in the superyacht tourism sector inasmuch as, on a par with the Côte d’Azur, it was the destination where most boats were concentrated in August 2016. The research, despite its limitations, aims to provide useful starting points for preparing a national strategy to achieve greater competitiveness in the tourist sector; in this way, it represents an incentive for reflection and a starting point for future research in nautical tourism.
The contribution of relational networks in the development of the Matera-Basilicata 2019 tourism system
Livio Chiarullo, Marcella De Filippo, Angela Pepe
Important events, due to high-profile programs associated with major public and private investments and the involvement of key figures, generally leave lasting positive effects on the urban-regional context where they succeed with their ability to penetrate, by modifying it, the economic and social structure of the destination.
As European Capital of Culture 2019, Matera is a driving force of social and cultural dynamics that contributes to the success of the whole of Basilicata. For this reason, after Matera was named as a European city of culture, 70% of European funding has been allocated to the surrounding area. The innovative nature of Matera’s proposal, which was in fact what led to it being chosen, was the idea to share and co-create a cultural model through an individual and territorial network. This work, carried out by the Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and the result of the collaboration with the Fondazione Matera 2019 and Unioncamere Basilicata, outlines and characterizes the inter-organizational network in Matera’s tourism industry, the interactions among tour operators in the regional territory and the DMOs (Destination Management Organizations) of the European Culture Capital, proposing the study of networks through a Network Analysis carried out in local companies and in several powerful associated groups. The results show interconnected tourism moving in the direction of network management models, but it nonetheless highlights limits in exploiting the potential of the network as a competitive advantage on the market. Network Analysis makes it possible to highlight the interaction level of the Matera-Basilicata 2019 tourism “system,” which at the moment is not as high as it could and should be.
For a New Governance of Territories: Cultural Enhancement of Some Southern Regions
The article illustrates the initiative launched by MiBACT in 2016 in support of a unified project of cultural development and promotion of the regions of Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Puglia and Sicily. Particular emphasis is laid on the objectives, the projected results and the beneficiaries of the resources to be allocated, and the contents of the first three projects that have been approved for funding. The criteria used for the analysis are based on tried and true rules of effective management. The basic concept is to encourage, by using the “avviso pubblico” procedure, a transition from traditional forms of government to more modern modes of cultural administration with the adoption of more open platforms that encourage participation, above all in regards to administration and financial matters, all while keeping in mind the rules of effective management or “good governing.” In total, 59 proposals were presented; 28 were taken into consideration, 10 were excluded for issues regarding procedure and another 21 were rejected. The paper analyzes several of the proposals presented and evaluates the application of the principles of good administration. The implications of the putting the Mibact project into practice are meant “to elevate the quality of programming at a local public administrative level in the field of culture on a regional or local level.” This will strengthen the capability to promote integration among territorial resources, policies and protagonists from both the private and public sectors involved in management and in government. The purpose is to foster the advancement of an integrated and sustainable administration of cultural heritage by public authorities, private individuals/companies or a mix of the two. The “adviso pubblico” procedure dovetails with a number of obvious requirements, which must be taken into account when creating projects in the field of culture. Above all it aims to satisfy a lack of “wide-range” planning also taking into account far reaching economic, financial and administrative aspects.
Destination Tuscany 2020
New Mercury Tourism Consulting
Destination Tuscany 2020 is the operational strategic plan for Tuscany’s tourism presented in May 2017. Perhaps the main innovative aspect was not detailed in writing because it is found in the procedure for its preparation which created a “shared plan,” that is an open and collective plan that works through sharing strategies, objectives and routes of action with local operators and industry players through group sessions, round tables, meetings and on-line conferences. Destination Tuscany 2020 aims to establish a sustainable tourism development path for the long-term growth of ideas and assets, identifying quadrennial strategic guidelines, specific aims and routes of action to increase regional tourist flows and to improve economic and social welfare. This choice is being carried out as a figurative overturn of positions: Florence as a destination must be seen as a starting point, and not simply a magnet for the arrival of tourists. This new vision is to be achieved through six closely interdependent strategies: new rules on regional tourism organization for new strategies; understanding how to plan, from the motivations of the traveller to what the destination has to offer; hosting as a distinctive feature; how to communicate identities; attention to contents; and digital ecosystems. The “plan” reveals that there have been and are major changes underway in terms of demand, with tourists becoming increasingly demanding, informed and computer-literate, looking for services and conveniences, but above all looking to be excited by what the whole region has to offer and by various activities. The changes in demand correspond to changes in supply due to the sharing economy models that are penetrating the market. However, Tuscany continues to identify itself on the international market as a superior destination geared towards international quality tourism, with a strong presence of tourists from outside European attracted to Florence and the entire region. The region’s excellent features are to be valued and promoted as a fundamental part of Tuscany’s identity by enhancing a unified image of the regional tourism system. For this reason, it is worth recalling that Tuscany is a genuine brand that strongly identifies as an Italian region. No other regional brand is as strong, even if others are easily identified, such as Italy’s large islands (Sicily and Sardinia). In the digital age, when everything is available instantly, perhaps just by contrast, the most fascinating strategic incentive, if not the most important in terms of development, seems to be that of regional identity.